Teaching and Learning Forum 2000 [ Proceedings Contents ]

Graduate Attributes Projects: A focus for grass roots change in teaching and learning practices

Michele Scoufis
Teaching and Learning Coordinator
University of Western Sydney, Nepean
    Australian, American and English universities are adopting programs to insure that the development of graduate (professional) attributes is integrated into the undergraduate curricula [see http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/ATN]. DETYA has also commissioned the development of a tool to assess graduate attributes (the proposed test has been widely criticised as reductionist and lacking in validity).

    With Senior Management support, the Core Graduate Attributes Project at UWS Nepean has provided a pathway for grass roots involvement in changing teaching and learning practices in order to support the development of graduate attributes through the curricula.

    The model underlying the Project at Nepean brings academics and professionals within the University together in developing integrated discipline contextualised strategies for the development of these lifelong skills and attributes.

    Ownership and collaboration amongst University staff and students is supported by a Staff Development model that is pragmatic yet founded on current teaching/learning research. Issues that impact on the effectiveness of the Project have emerged that appear to cover concerns expressed within similar Graduate Attributes projects at other universities.

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Issues to trigger discussion

  • How can the Graduate Attributes Project best serve as a focus for academic leadership in good teaching practice?

  • Given that the Project impacts on teaching in all the undergraduate curricula, how are casual and part/time academics to be involved in the Project?

  • How might the development of Graduate Attributes be successfully imbedded into courses where there are strict professional accreditation requirements and/or in alternative delivery modes being used.

  • What strategies can be used to assist academics to deconstruct the skills, values and ways of knowing implicit in the way they define specific graduate attributes?

  • What strategies successfully maintain interest in the Project given that successful implementation of the curriculum change implicit in such programs takes several years to achieve?

  • How can students effectively demonstrate the development of these graduate attributes upon graduation?

It is hoped that participants will share their own experiences of similar projects and the ways issues such as those noted above, have been resolved.

Students, employers and government bodies expect that undergraduate university degrees will equip students, not only with the specific knowledge, skills and attributes of their field, but also with the professional and personal attributes relevant to their field of study. Across Australian, English and American universities, projects to integrate the development of graduate or 'professional' attributes into the undergraduate curricula, have been initiated, see for example [http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/ATN/ & http://cedir.uow.edu.au/programs/literacies/gswp].

These projects generally acknowledge that the development of graduate attributes needs to be contextualised within the specific fields of study since "knowledge is fundamentally situated" (Brown, Collins & Duguid, 1998, De la Harpe, Wyber, Radloff and McKenna, 1999, p.3). It is also recognised that professional attributes are progressively developed over time and "thus professional skills should permeate the whole curriculum rather than be isolated in a single or specialised course, avoiding the 'one-shot' or inoculation model of teaching" (De la Harpe, Wyber, Radloff and McKenna, 1999, p.3).

At the University of Western Sydney, Nepean, a systematic model has been developed to support the integration into the curriculum of the Core Graduate Attributes (defined as disciplinary knowledge, critical analysis and problem solving skills, Boyer's scholarships of discovery, integration and transmission of knowledge, interdisciplinary knowledge base, written and oral communication skills, computer literacy, civic responsibility, multicultural sensitivity, ethical awareness and conduct, independent initiative and self confidence and effective team skills). The Graduate Attributes Project at Nepean covers three areas - Information Literacy (defined as the abilities involved in recognising what information is needed in order to locate, evaluate, effectively use and communicate information in its various formats), the other Core Graduate Attributes which are being defined in the context of specific fields of study and Basic Computer Skills (including basic wordprocessing, e-mail, spreadsheets and web navigation [http://www.nepean.uws.edu.au/ students/coreprogram/attributes.html]. Progress to date on the integration of the development of Information Literacy and the other Core Graduate Attributes into the undergraduate curriculum is shown in Diagram 1 below.

Nepean Core Graduate Attributes Project
Progress to date [December 1999]

UWS Senate and UWS Nepean Academic Board endorsed the Core
Graduate Attributes Project as reflected in Nepean's Academic Plan

arrow graphic

Core Graduate Attributes Project Task Group

Established with membership drawn from Academics from a number of Schools, the Library, The Learning Centre and the Centre for Academic Development and Flexible Learning (CADFL), (Michele Scoufis CADFL, Task Group Leader).
arrow graphic

Components of the Core Graduate Attributes Project

Integration of Core Graduate Attributes into the Undergraduate Curricula
  • Task Groups formed within Schools at UWS Nepean to define core graduate attributes within the context of the field of study and to review curricula so that attributes are explicitly developed and assessed progressively through the student's years of study.
  • Support provided by CADFL (including facilitating the sharing of approaches used currently at Nepean and at other Universities engaged in similar projects).
  • Web site established to share Teaching and Assessment approaches for the development of the attributes.
Development of Core Computer Skills
(defined as basic wordprocessing, email, web, database and spreadsheet skills)
  • Basic Computer Skills (BCS) Task Group established (Rosemary Thomson, CADFL Task Group Leader).
  • Audit of BCS training needs for Nepean students (September 1999).
  • Computer Based Training (CBT) modules for BCS, trialled and evaluated (October 1999).
  • 2000
    • CBT available in all student labs.
    • Proposed face to face training for those students who are apprehensive about computer use.
  • Development of student certification process currently being discussed.
Development of Information Literacy Skills
(defined as the abilities involved in recognising when and what information is needed in order to locate, evaluate, effectively use and communicate information in its various formats)
  • Information Literacy (IL) Task Group established (partnership of Academics, the Library, The Learning Centre and CADFL, Michele Scoufis -Task Group Leader).
  • IL Audit of first year coordinators and lecturers (October 1999) sought to define IL needs of first year students, collate strategies currently being used to develop IL and determine forms of support sought by academics to enable their students to develop these attributes.
  • IL Workshops/forum held in November 1999 to discuss strategies for the integration of the development of IL within the undergraduate curricula. Strategies are being developed collaboratively by academics, The Learning Centre, Library and CADFL.
  • 2000 development of contextually based/field specific information literacy programs integrated within the curricula.
  • 2000 IL Website and discussion list for the sharing of teaching and assessment strategies for the development of IL.

The model, implicit in the diagram above, represents the Project as a coordinated process across the University, involving close partnerships between academics and support services. Ownership of the project by both academics, support staff and students is built into the project. The project forms part of a wider project - the Nepean Core Project, initiated and supported by the PVC Academic.

In this wider project, the student's development and demonstration of the Core Graduate Attributes is supported through a systematic peer monitoring program and the Nepean Portfolio (which provides students with a means to document their skills and experiences, including evidence of the Core Graduate Attributes).

Task Groups, within each School, are contextualising the Core Graduate Attributes with the support of the Project Leader. To achieve this end, task groups are relating the attributes to the qualities valued in graduates in their field (for example in Nursing, the attributes have been linked to the Australian Nursing Council Competency Standards for Registered Nurses) and/or to concerns that academics express about students in their field (eg lack of communication and team skills in Science) - see Table 1.

Table 1: Core Graduate Attributes - Contextualised

Attribute Health and
Employment Relations and Work Science Civic
Critical analysis
  • Critical reflection and critical practice
  • Ability to critically examine knowledge in the light of theory vs practice
  • In the lab context - critical analysis of what needs to be done and what the results mean
  • Critically evaluate the relevance of theory vs practice
  • Problem solving
  • Developing, implementing and evaluating a Nursing Plan
  • Decision making
  • Managing change and crisis
  • Applying theory to problem solving
  • Understanding what it is to be a scientist and to think scientifically

  • Information literacy
  • Evidence based Nursing
  • Defining the task and then assessing, evaluating and integrating relevant research into Nursing Practice
  • Accessing and utilising research material including web and CD based resources
  • Using primary and secondary research
  • Drawing upon text, index, web, library as information sources
  • Being able to cross-reference information sources

  • Transmit knowledge
  • Peer learning
  • Mentoring

  • Interdisciplinary knowledge base
  • Interdisciplinary knowledge base
  • Human Resource Management vs Industrial Relations vs Employment Relations vs Psychology vs Sociology

  • Acknowledging the perspectives of various interest groups/ stakeholders and advocating a position within a multi-disciplinary project
  • Written communication skills
  • Professional report writing skills
  • Demonstrate clarity of expression, presentation of a position in a structured logical manner, drawing upon primary and secondary sources
  • Proper documentation
  • Writing scientifically at length
  • Write design briefs in a professional manner
  • Oral communication skills
  • Use of appropriate professional language
  • Demonstrating caring therapeutic interpersonal skills and attributes
  • Demonstrating clear, confident verbal expression with appropriate language and style to fit the purpose
  • Leading discussion
  • Contribution to group presentation
  • Speaking scientifically - communication with peers and others

  • Sensitivity to multicultural issues
  • Sensitivity to multicultural issues
  • Sensitivity to multicultural issues

  • Awareness of ethical issues and conduct
  • Ethical practice and awareness
  • Professional, legal, ethical practice - responsibility, accountability
  • Awareness of ethics in research
  • Awareness of legislation requirements
  • Awareness of confidentiality issues
  • Acknowledgement of sources

  • Independent initiative and self confidence
  • Managing Nursing Care needs of the patient
  • Self evaluate own learning needs and Nursing practices and engaging in professional development
  • Time management skills especially prioritising, planning organising workload as a professional Nurse
  • Function independently
  • Develop understanding of what learning is about
  • Function independently as a learner

  • Group team skills
  • Effective membership within a Health Care Team
  • Working collaboratively with families and significantly others in developing a Health Care Plan
  • Working collaboratively with colleagues and members of Health Care Team
  • Effective team participation
  • Negotiate meaning and develop conceptual understanding
  • Problem solving, task sharing

  • Discipline knowledge
  • Discipline knowledge

  • Science seen as a whole, rather than as fragmentary

  • Basic computer skills
  • Accessing information from a variety of sources including web
  • Using email
  • Participation in web discussion groups
  • Wordprocessing skills
  • Access information off web, CD-ROM, etc
  • Competence in using computers
  • Calculation, tab and graphical software
  • Internet use

  • Other

  • Lab competency - bench expertise

  • With the support of a resource kit currently being developed that collates annotated examples of current approaches being used by UWS academics to develop and assess the students' demonstration of these graduate attributes, teams within the Schools are reviewing teaching, learning and assessment strategies that support the development of these attributes. Thus academic staff in each discipline have been encouraged to accept responsibility, as a team, for their graduates since no one academic is responsible for the level of professional skills in graduates! (de la Harpe, Wyber, Radloff and McKenna, 1999). By this means, ownership of the project is encouraged.

    The support and involvement of the Library, The Learning Centre and the Centre for Academic Development and Flexible Learning (CADFL), has been encouraged through a Project Management Task Group that includes academic and support services representatives. In partnership, the support services and academics are exploring ways that each group can assist in the integrated teaching, learning and assessment of these attributes within the undergraduate curriculum. This is illustrated in relation to the integrated development of Information Literacy Skills (see Appendix 1 - 'Helping Students to Develop Information Literacy Skills'). Whilst drawing on the literature in the field of Information Literacy (see, for example, Bruce, 1997, Radomski, 1999, Leckie and Fullerton, 1999, http://www.fit.qut.edu.au/InfoSys/bruce/inflit/prompts.html, http://www.library.unisa.edu.au/infolit/ and http://cedir.uow.edu.au/programs/literacies/information/), this document was developed from ideas and strategies provided by Academics, Librarians, The Learning Centre and CADFL staff.

    Ownership, of the Project, by students is being facilitated by making explicit reference to the Graduate Attributes in subject learning outcomes, subject content and assessment criteria. By this means students are alerted to the expectation that they too must take responsibility for the development of these attributes.

    The importance of providing support for academics in the process of integrating the graduate attributes into their curricula, cannot be overstated. Academics face time constraints, large student numbers and reward systems that value research, not teaching. Significantly, many academics may feel uncertain about their own competence in some areas of the Graduate Attributes. This concern was expressed in the Information Literacy Audit of first year subject coordinators and lecturers. The audit was designed to ascertain the specific Information Literacy needs of first year students (one component of the Core Graduate Attributes Project) in the specific fields of study and the forms of support that would assist academics in working with the Library and The Learning Centre, to assist their students to develop these skills. Similar concerns from academics about their real or perceived lack of competency have been noted by the Wollongong Graduate Attributes Working Party [ http://www.uow.edu.au/student/attributes.html].

    Thus a significant objective of the Nepean Core Graduate Attributes Project has been to assist Academics to help their students develop these Attributes and, in so doing, to further develop these attributes themselves. This is being achieved by helping academics to deconstruct what is entailed by particular Attributes in their field of study and by sharing models and approaches for their development being used within the University and elsewhere. These models and approaches are being made available on the web and in hard copy form. Attention has been taken to ensure that these approaches provide educationally sound yet pragmatic responses to issues affecting academics today, such as large student numbers. Particular emphasis has been placed on finding examples from academic peers that model greater use of peer and collaborative learning, increased feedback mechanisms, greater use of explicitly defined learning outcome expectations and more student centred participative learning approaches.

    The model of staff development that underpins the project is pragmatic and responsive to the immediate needs and issues faced by academics whilst being founded on sound teaching/learning principles and philosophy. As advocated by Prosser and Trigwell (1999), it is a collaborative, collegial approach to staff development, rather than a prescriptive one. The approach to Staff Development that is implicit in the model, acknowledges "that staff development should be informed by a sense of community" and seen to be "responsive to the special nature of the academic culture and its changing demands "and is responsive to the needs of individuals and groups at all levels" (Brew, 1995, pp.15-16).

    Effective staff development is critical to the success of this project as a major shift in teaching learning practices from a teaching-centred and content-focused transmission model of teaching and learning to a student-centred and process-focused constructivist model of teaching and learning is necessitated (Boulton-Lewis, 1998 and Kember, 1998). Such a shift in the role of the academic from that of content expert to facilitator of learning, requires significant changes to other curricula to support the development of these Attributes at a time when academics are under considerable pressure. The sharing amongst Nepean academics of strategies to achieve these ends is one way by which such changes in teaching practices are being supported.

    The Project has resulted in wider engagement by academics in teaching learning issues than might normally have occurred and is supporting an environment where "interest in teaching is nurtured and where solving educational problems collaboratively is nurtured" (Ramsden, 1999).

    Nevertheless, there are important issues emerging that impact on the effectiveness of the Project and reflect concerns expressed elsewhere.

    The process of contextualising the Graduate Attributes is not always straight forward, and Attributes such as communication skills, team work, computing skills and information literacy attributes are more easily contextualised, developed and assessed than areas such as ethical and multicultural awareness and conduct. Further, the process has been more difficult in new courses such as Civic Ecology where there is still discussion about course philosophy and outcomes. A concern has also been expressed that the contextualisation and integration of the Graduate Attributes into the curricula has also led to an overemphasis on the development of "professional" attributes to the neglect of "pure academic content".

    A further potential barrier to the successful changing of teaching/learning practices associated with the Project, is the need to engage all academics in the process. Helping part-time and casual academics to vary their approach to reflect this change in teaching/learning, remains an important issue since they are often primarily responsible for first year teaching.

    Other unresolved issues include the need to progressively integrate the development of the Attributes beyond first year subjects. This is an issue that is still being considered. Finally, the ways in which students can ultimately demonstrate these Attributes on graduation requires further investigation.

    Irrespective of the concerns expressed above, the Core Graduate Attributes Project at UWS Nepean has provided a focus for collaborative partnerships and a concern for the central Educational Role of the University which may not have occurred otherwise.


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    Boulton-Lewis, G. (1998). Applying the SOLO taxonomy to learning in higher education. In Dart, B. and Boulton-Lewis, G. (Eds.), Teaching and learning in higher education (pp. 201-221) Camberwell, Victoria, ACER Press.

    Brew, A. (1995). Directions in Staff Development. London, Open University Press.

    Brown, J.S., Collins, A. and Duguid, P. (1998). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Report No. IRL88-008. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED342357.

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    De la Harpe, B., Wyber, J., Radloff, A. and McKenna, K. (1999). Quality and generic(professional) skills. Curtin University, Western Australia, unpublished paper.

    De la Harpe, B., Radloff, A. and Wyber, J. (1999). What professional skills mean for different disciplines in a business school? Lessons learned from integrating professional skills across the curriculum . 7th ISL Symposium, York, September, 1999.

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    Kember, D. (1998). Teaching beliefs and their impact on students' approach to learning. In Dart, B. and Boulton-Lewis, G. (Eds.), Teaching and learning in higher education (pp.1-25). Camberwell, Victoria, ACER Press.

    Leckie, G. and Fullerton, A. (1999). Information Literacy in Science and Engineering Undergraduate Education: Faculty Attitudes and Pedagogical Practices. College and Research Libraries, p.9-29.

    Markless, S., Streetfield, D. and Baker, L. (1992). Cultivating information skills in further education.

    Prosser, B. and Trigwell, K. (1999). Understanding learning and teaching, Buckingham, SRHE and Open University Press.

    Radomski, N. (1999). Implementing Information Literacy : Themes, Issues and Future Directions. Ballarat, University of Ballarat.

    Appendix 1

    Developing Information Literacy through the Undergraduate Curricula


    • Information Literacy (IL) is a complex skill which involves the student interacting with information (eg searching, locating, analysing, synthesising, etc.) in ways that generate new (to them) information.
    • IL skills develop progressively over time.
    • An information literate student understands the processes involved in IL and is able to demonstrate those processes.
    • Students most easily acquire/develop IL skills when these are contextualised to their field of study.
    • IL development should lead to the student becoming independently able to meet their IL needs in his/her life.
    • IL development involves a partnership between academic and support services (the Library, The Learning Centre and the Centre for Academic Development and Flexible Learning - CADFL.)
    • IL can effectively be supported through student collaborative learning.

    Information Literacy Task Group
    This booklet is a living document. Your suggestions for further development are much appreciated. [Email Michele Scoufis "m.scoufis@nepean.uws.edu.au"]

    Helping students to develop information literacy skills

    Skill Some ideas for support from the Library, The Learning Centre and CADFL, using discipline specific subject matter where relevant Some possible teaching and assessment strategies
    A - Developing effective search strategies

  • Identifying information needs.
  • Identifying keywords, authors.
  • Identifying types of information eg primary vs secondary; scholarly vs popular; current vs historical, etc.
  • Identifying formats of information eg web, database, AV, books.
  • Constructing search strategy.
  • Seeks varying perspectives in information gathered.
  • Developing a timeframe for acquiring needed information.
  • Assignment based combined Library/The Learning Centre workshops on key word searching and identifying information needs with subject lecturer/tutors present if possible.
  • Assessment and subject related Library workshops on keyword searching.
  • Handy hints for research (handout from Library/also on web).
  • Overview of the research process - session + handouts (Library).
  • Session on the development of an idea, and where this leads + handouts (Library).
  • Detailed course outlines that make expected specific Information Literacy (IL) outcomes explicit for students, providing guidelines for research that is expected and listing appropriate initial resources.
  • Pathfinder assignment (with peer review?) - see IL Resource Kit.
  • Repeated practice in searching for information.
  • Students construct a search strategy relevant to the discipline field.
  • Limit initial resource (and search) requirements for first year students.
  • Design assessment tasks that explicitly include & assess specific IL skills.
  • Value non-print sources in lectures and seminars.
  • Demonstrate, as you go, how to reference non-print materials.
  • Include call numbers and WWW sources in booklists in first year subjects.
  • B - Locating and retrieving information sources relevant to the field of study

  • Sees the topic within the framework/language of the discipline.
  • Uses online catalogue and other means (eg inter Library loan, professional associations, community resources, experts and practitioners).
  • Using Voyager to locate information needs relevant to the field of study (Library).
  • Retrieving information sources, handy hints (handout from Library/also on web).
  • Library and The Learning Centre staff model the process of identifying subject specific information needs and locating information and students' work through a set of structured exercises (using Nepean Critical Thinking and Writing Network resources).
  • Make theoretical frameworks or perspectives within the discipline explicit for students.
  • Students submit a journal of resources used for an assignment with the opportunity for students to explain, reflect on research strategies that worked/didn't work and suggest alternative strategies.
  • Students submit an annotated bibliography with search strategy discussed.
  • C - Analysing and critically evaluating information
    eg web sites
  • Assesses the quality, quantity and relevance of search results and identifies gaps in information retrieved and revises search strategy if needed.
  • Examines information from various sources to evaluate relevance, accuracy, authority, point of view/bias/context, timeliness.
  • Analyses the structure and logic of supporting arguments or methods.
  • Uses consciously selected criteria to determine whether information contradicts or verifies information from other sources.
  • Handy hints on evaluating web sites and other information sources (Library/web handout).
  • The Learning Centre subject specific workshops on analysing and evaluating information.
  • Combined Library/Academic session on the proper use of electronic & other sources.
  • Session on refereed journal articles and how to identify them; checking an author's credentials (Library).
  • Provide students with guidelines on reading critically within the field of study.
  • See Nepean Critical Thinking and Writing Network video and worksheets in manual, CD Rom and book (Phone: 02 9678 7648/ Email: Jill Moriarty [j.moriarty@nepean.uws.edu.au], Linkwest for details).
  • Use annotated student model summaries to highlight approaches to summarising (Email: Michele Scoufis [m.scoufis@nepean.uws.edu.au], CADFL for details).
  • D - Organises and synthesises information

  • Summarises main ideas and restates in own words the information gathered.
  • Integrates new information with previous information or knowledge.
  • Selects information that provides evidence for the topic.
  • Recognises interrelationships among concepts and combines them into potentially useful primary statements with supporting evidence.
  • Extends initial synthesis when possible to a higher level of abstraction to construct new hypotheses that may require additional information.
  • The Learning Centre subject specific workshops on reading more effectively.
  • 500 word summaries of required readings with guidelines provided (eg those developed by Bronwyn James and David McInnes (Email: Michele Scoufis [m.scoufis@nepean.uws.edu.au], CADFL for a copy).
  • Focused open class discussion sessions, at the time of handing out tasks, about requirements. Students get a chance to verbalise their IL needs.
  • E - Using information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose

  • Organises the content in a manner that supports the purposes and format of the product or performance (eg essay, report, journal).
  • Critically integrates theory and practice.
  • Integrates information, including quotations and paraphrasing, in a manner that supports the purpose or performance.
  • Communicating clearly and in a format and style that supports the purposes of the intended audience.

  • Class exercises in theory/ practice integration.
  • Exercises in Applied Theory.
  • F - Accesses and uses information ethically and legally

  • Understands the ethical, legal and social issues surrounding information and information technology.
  • Understands the concept of plagiarism and does not convey work attributes to others as his own.
  • Acknowledges the use of inf. sources in communicating the product or performance.
  • Combined Library/Academic/The Learning Centre session on the proper use and acknowledgement of electronic and other sources.
  • A comprehensive Style Guide, which acknowledges non-print as well as print literature - on WWW as well as in print.
  • Provide examples of common errors in citation and ask students to correct them with guidelines.
  • Citation practice exercise (Email: Joanne Tiernan [j.tiernan@nepean.uws.edu.au], for an example).
  • Define and reinforce plagiarism in subject outlines and style guides.
  • Talk to students about the value and purpose of citation.

  • Frequently Asked Questions

    • What is Information Literacy (IL)?
      Information Literacy involves the skills of recognising the need for information, locating, analysing and critically evaluating information and organising and using information ethically and effectively to achieve a particular purpose.

    • What is the difference between Information Literacy, Basic English Literacy and Basic Computer Skills?
      Basic English literacy involves basic skills of reading and writing. Basic computer skills include skills in using wordprocessing, email, spreadsheets and the web. Information technology skills are those skills involved in using the technology such as a web based database or catalogue to access the information needed. IL requires both basic English skills and basic Computer and Information Technology skills and extends beyond them. To be Information Literate, the student needs to be able to draw upon Information Technology and basic English literacy skills and IL skills to define, access, evaluate and incorporate information to achieve particular purpose.

    • Why is it important?
      Information Literacy (IL) skills are implicit in the development of knowledge and the graduate attributes valued in the field of study. For the student, the development of IL skills will facilitate the achievement of scholastic goals, and be invaluable in the workplace and personally.

    • As an academic, I have so much content to cover in my subjects, how can I include the development of Information Literacy?
      Information Literacy is often an implicit learning outcome that students are expected to demonstrate through their studies. To help students achieve these outcomes, it may help if we make our expectations explicit in subject objectives, and link activities to develop these skills to the content covered.

    • I'm not sure how I can integrate the development of Information Literacy into my curriculum?
      For students, "assessment drives the curriculum" (Ramsden 1992). Providing tasks that develop IL skills and allocating marks to them as part of the assessment, can greatly assist students to develop IL skills.

      Note: The IL Resource Kit, available from CADFL, provides practical hints and ideas drawn from our University academics.

    Please cite as: Scoufis, M. (2000). Graduate Attributes Projects: A focus for grass roots change in teaching and learning practices. In A. Herrmann and M.M. Kulski (Eds), Flexible Futures in Tertiary Teaching. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Teaching Learning Forum, 2-4 February 2000. Perth: Curtin University of Technology. http://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf2000/scoufis.html

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